• Development of jazz was a direct example of cross cultural assimilation 
  • Jazz musicians were self-taught
  • Jazz was looked at as a sin, those who contributed were almost shamed
  • Jazz = African music + accustomization to European music
  • Ragtime was foundation to jazz
  • Buddy Bolten – first New Orleans trumpet king
  • Louis Armstrong – father of jazz music, broadened the style of jazz (included trumpet)
  • New Orleans was the perfect environment for new genre of jazz, it originated there
    • first opera company in America founded here
    • there was work for musicians
    • music began to spread from here
  • Jerry Capran?? – moved jazz to Los Angeles
    • but the West Coast was not good for jazz
  • Then jazz moved to East Coast
  • Dixie Jazz Band, white band, claimed they were the creators of jazz
  • Jazz was important in 1920s, appealed to white and black people
  • Black southerners moved up to Chicago and brought Jazz with them
    • Chicago became center
    • Joe Oliver – one of the biggest names in Jazz in Chicago
  • Flappers embraced jazz
  • Coleman Hawkins – inspired by Armstrong, established saxophone as a jazz instrument
  • Harlem replaced Chicago as a hotbed
    • cultural renaissance taking place in Harlem
  • Duke Ellington – came to New York with band, but came to be known as band leader
  • Jazz became known in Paris, Berlin, Linenbrad, Barcelona, Shanghai, across the world
  • Jane Harvey was one of the first female jazz artists
  • James B. Johnson developed “The Charleston”, known for his abilities on piano
  • Kansas City became hub of Western and Southern Jazz Musicians
  • Lester – saxophone
  • Mary Marie Louis
  • Religious people did not fully accept jazz
  • Hollywood would use jazz bands within their productions
  • Harlem Swing was style of jazz dance music
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Bessie Smith
  • Billie Holiday (c’ 30s)
  • Ella Fitzgerald
  • Charlie Christian
  • Rebop, Bebop, Bop
  • Bebop – swing + a new way of playing lines
    • Audience wouldn’t dance
    • everybody played bebop differently
    • Charlie Parker – rhythmic variation, he had a new approach with pyrotechnics
  • Monk – blues bass but rhythmic and swingy 
  • Miles Davis – modal approach, became known as biggest in decade
  • John Coltrane – delved into Eastern and African music, innovation, Free Jazz