Jubilee Quartets were known for their tight four-part vocal harmonies. Each member of the group would sing a different part—soprano, alto, tenor, and bass—and the blending of these voices created a rich, harmonious sound. The style and repertoire of Jubilee Quartets were deeply rooted in African American culture and the African American church experience. Their music served as a reflection of faith and a source of inspiration within the Black community. Prominent Jubilee Quartets from the early 20th century included groups like the Fisk Jubilee Singers, the Golden Gate Quartet, and the Dixie Hummingbirds. Over time, the influence of Jubilee Quartets can be seen in the development of gospel music, doo-wop, and other vocal harmony genres. Jubilee Quartets were one of the first forms of American music that saw integration, with both Black and white audiences enjoying their performances. This contributed to breaking down racial barriers in music and laid the foundation for future integration in the industry. Many early gospel performers and composers got their start in Jubilee Quartets, and the call-and-response, harmony singing, and emotional fervor of Jubilee music can be seen in later gospel music.
The Golden Gate Quartet was known for its innovative approach to gospel music. They introduced new harmonies, rhythmic patterns, and a more upbeat and jazzy style to traditional spirituals and hymns. Their music’s wide appeal helped bridge racial divides and contributed to the gradual integration of gospel music into the mainstream. Their performances often carried messages of hope, freedom, and resistance. During the civil rights movement, their music was a source of inspiration for those fighting for social justice. The Golden Gate Quartet’s music gained international recognition. They toured Europe, and their performances contributed to spreading gospel music worldwide.