Jazz is based on the black church. One component of jazz that is often seen is call and response. There is a plethora of subgenres in jazz. For example, there is classical, bebop, modal, free, swing, trad, and more. Jazz can be associated with black intellectualism. Some recognizable bebod artists include John Coltrane and Dizzy Gillespie. Charles Mingus is also a famous jazz artist. His most famous song is probably “Goodbye Pork Pie Hat”. Free Jazz has a very free form; the artists often don’t play within the constraints of the chord. Ornette Coleman is a famous free jazz artist. Modal Jazz is defined by de-emphasizing the role of chords. A modal approach forces the improviser to create interest by other means: melody, rhythm, timbre, and emotion. It has such as a melodic bass line with a less structured chord progression. One example of this is “A Love Supreme” by John Coltrane. Buddy Bolden was a key figure in the development of a New Orleans style of ragtime music, or “jass”, which later came to be known as jazz. Improvisation is one of the hallmarks of jazz.