FINAL EXAM EXEMPTION ( submit form form )

Listening Portion of Final Exam

Writing Portion of Final Exam



Pattin’ Juba

Work Songs



Negro Spiritual

Concert Spiritual

Fisk Jubilee SIngers

Who Wrote Them?

Who Wrote them down and published a book?

Sacred vs Secular

Member configuration

Sacred vs. Secular



Scott Joplin.

Maple Leaf Rag

Eubie Blake


Black Face

Minstrel Shows

St. Louis



12-bar blues




Blues Revival

  • Store Front Church
  • Folk Spiritual
  • Great Migration
  • Shout (not ring shout)
  • Transitional gospel music
  • Speaking in tongues
  • Call – Response


Jungle Sound
Jelly Roll Morton
Opera Houses
Double time
Shout chorus
Buddy Bolden
New Orleans
Louis Armstrong
Short Chorus
Big Band Jazz
Young Lions
New Traditionalists
Black Power Movement
Free Jazz
Congo Square
Call and Response
Buddy Bolden
New Orleans, LA
Coon Song
Louis Armstrong

Soul originated in the 1950s in the southern united states. Parented by R&B and gospel, these two genres both tie into Soul music. Soul keeps the R&B relation due to its link to physical desire in the lyrics of soul music. On the other hand Soul keeps the gospel relation due to its spiritual connection in the music. During the late 1950s and early 1960s due to the struggles african american people faced, Soul music entered its prime during the civil rights movement. The record labels who produced hit classics such as Motown, Atlantic, and Stax were pioneers in the civil rights era. Artists such as Michael Jackson and Marvin Gaye personified what it means to just want peace in a hard time for the african american people. Catchy lyrics, smooth dance moves, and hand claps all make up important characteristics of soul. Another gospel like characteristic of Soul is the call-and-response aspect between the main singer and the background vocalists of the music. A blues like characteristic of the Soul genre is improvisation of the singers in the compositions they make.

With the creation of soul music, there were also stems of sub genres that were influenced by soul. For example Memphis Soul, Detroit (Motown) soul , and Neo-Soul all derived from the classic soul mix of gospel and blues. Memphis soul, which peaked in the 1970s was filled with glam as it featured Staxs records and produced singers like Al Green and Booker T. Motown Soul, which was the forefront of hit makers made a stride in putting artist on the record boards. Lead by Barry Gordy, Motown soul is gospel oriented with hard hitting bass lines, bells, and hand clapping. Neo-Soul which conforms to the newer generation is filled with a mixture of R&B, hip-hop, and 70s Soul. Some characteristics of Neo-Soul feature poetic lines, signing runs, and more technological beats versus real life instrumentation.


R&B first stream was in Los Angeles (late 1940s) and this genre came out of jazz. An electrical guitar was played and modernized the music to sound louder. Charlie Parker and Miles Davis were popular artists during this time.
This genre started the second stream; Rock and Roll (1950s). Little Richard, Chuck Berry, and Etta James were apart of Chess Records during this stream. 
R&B had a third stream in the 1960s and included Soul. Aretha Franklin, Patti LaBelle, Luther Vandross, Anita Baker, and Gerald Levert were some popular artists during this stream.

Funk originated in the mid-1960’s by African American people. It is a mixture of soul, jazz, and rhythm and blues. Some characteristics of Funk music include rhythm and tempo, harmony, vocals, electric guitar, and keyboards. Costumes were also a major part of Funk music. There are many different types of Funk, including Synth funk and Jazz-funk. Funk was a way for black people to express themselves through music and dance. 

Disco originated in New York City and Philadelphia in the 1970s. Disco music is a combination of multiple genres like funk, soul, and gospel. African Americans contributed a lot to the disco genre. Disco was known as a dancing music. This genre was catered toward African Americans, Latinos, LGBT, and other minority groups. Some well known disco artists are Donna Summer, James Brown, Kool and the Gang, Earth Wind & Fire, Con Funk Shon, Isley Brothers, Rick James, and many other influential disco artists. Some well known songs are Ain’t Gonna Bump No More (W/ No Big Fat Woman, You’re the First, the Last, & My Everything, and (Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty. Some of the elements of disco is electric instruments like the piano and guitar, drum machines, talk box to change their voices, and keyboards/ TR-808. During the disco club like Studio 54, the DJs would mix different songs together. Larry Levan is the father of house music. Drugs were associated with Disco because it would make the experience in the club better. People would take cocaine to have more enjoyable time. Disco music created more music genres like house music and electric dance music. The fashion consist of flared jeans, sheer, flow dresses, bell bottoms, halter tops, and etc. Majority o these fashion items are still worn today by many generations. These trends will never die.

Hip Hop originally formed in the 1970’s in Bronx, New York. Youth at the time were the mainstream performers of Hip Hop music. It did not become popular until the late 1970’s, specifically, 1979. It was first started being played in clubs and block parties and upcoming rappers would have rap battles in parks or on nearby corners. At the block parties, Dj’s would play popular songs using two turntables to make a “break” in the song. Almost like playing two different songs at once.

The Golden age of Hip Hop was between the mid-1980’s and 1990’s. Gangsta rap became popular between this time and focused on inner-city struggles and highlighted the violent lives teens would live during this time. Political rap also became popular during this time. Some famous artists include Slick Rick, Kool G rap group, Dr. Dre, and Snoop Dog. 

Techno originated in Detroit Michigan in the early 1980’s. Techno is a from of electronic music produced using a wide range of electronic and computer-base digital instruments and software. Techno music does not just belong to one race, its universal. Techno music has given way to disco dj’s, raves, house music, dance and so many other things. Techno can be appreciated in the general historical lineage of electronic music.