Back in the early South during slavery, African slaves were not allowed to worship by themselves. Black codes, which were laws that prohibited slaves from engaging in certain actions, made it against the law for slaves to worship unless in the presence of whites. African-American slaves were passionate about worship and religion, but not fond of the white way, so they were forced to come up with a secret way to worship. The Invisible Church was then created.
Moved from speech to song.
Involved everyone that was present in the church, and included hand clapping, body movement, shouting and religious dance.
Sharing a testimony, or story, of how religion has worked in their life.
Congregational participation was expected and highly valued.
Burnim, Mellonee V. “Spirituals.” African American Music: An Introduction, by Mellonee V. Burnim and Portia K. Maultsby, Routledge, 2015, pp. 53–54.