Author: Jada Farley-Cook

Background and History

Back in the early South during slavery, African slaves were not allowed to worship by themselves. Black codes, which were laws that prohibited slaves from engaging in certain actions, made it against the law for slaves to worship unless in the presence of whites. African-American slaves were passionate about worship and religion, but not fond of the white way, so they were forced to come up with a secret way to worship. The Invisible Church was then created.







Slave Accounts

When going to worship, the slaves would "Hold prayer-meetin' in de woods, den dey turn down a big wash pot and prop it up with a stick to drown out de sound of de singin'".
Fannie Moore
Ex- Slave
When the slaves attended white church, they were told "Serve your masters. Don't steal your master's turkey. Don't steal your master's hawgs".
Lucretia Alexander
"White fo'ks have deir service in de mornin' am' black folks have deirs in de evenin".
Sarah Fitzpatrick
Alabama Slave

Components of Worship


Communal Singing



Moved from speech to song.

Involved everyone that was present in the church, and included hand clapping, body movement, shouting and religious dance.

Sharing a testimony, or story, of how religion has worked in their life.

Congregational participation was expected and highly valued.


Burnim, Mellonee V. “Spirituals.” African American Music: An Introduction, by Mellonee V. Burnim and Portia K. Maultsby, Routledge, 2015, pp. 53–54.


This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.