The Origins of Jubilee Quartets and Its Contributors by Peyton Bolling

A Four Part Harmony

The different forms of Jubilee Quartets are the following: Minstrel Jubilee, Community-Based Quartets, Sacred Harp, and Gospel Quartets. These are the various forms of quartets that all express a variety of singing styles. 

"What we call the beginning is often the end. And to make an end is to make a beginning. The end is where we start from."

The Golden Gate Quartet

A pioneer jubilee quartet group from Virginia. The group was propelled by Willie Johnson and William Langford. The Mills Brothers also played a key role in this group. In 1941, the group was recording for Columbia and had frequent movie appearances. The following were a few of their appearances: Star Spangled Rhythm, Hollywood Canteen and Hit Parade of 1943.
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Fisk Jubilee Quartet

An African-American ensemble that consist of students from Fisk University. The first group was organized in 1871. This group was formed solely to tour and raise college funds. Their music collection consisted of traditional spirituals.
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The Dixie Hummingbirds

This group was a pioneering force behind the evolution of gospel quartet sounds. The Dixie Hummingbirds were among the longest-lived and most successful groups during the jubilee quartet era. They were recognized as the greatest Southern quartet of their generation. Their influence in spiritual music spread across the world and inspired several secular artists.
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Norfolk Jubilee Quartet

Alternately known as Norfolk Jazz, this group was the most influential and most known. This group emerged from the Tidewater region of Virginia. The group was founded by bass singer Len Williams and baritone Delroy Hollins. This group was performing as early as 1919. In 1921, Mamie Smith appeared with Norkfolk Jazz in a variety show.
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Farfield Four

This group is known for their appearance at the end of the film "O Brother Where Art Thou". This group remains and is continuing their legacy singing in the traditional African American a cappella gospel style. They have been known for this style since their inception about a century ago.
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Five Blind Boys

Most of the members within this group are from the Magnolia state. This is an extraordinary group of blind male singers. The group consist Archie Brownlee, Lloyd Woodard, Lawrence Abrams, Joseph Ford, Jesse Brown, and Isaiah Patterson.
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The Pilgrim Travelers

This group was among the most successful and influential groups of gospel's golden era. The Pilgrim Travelers were founded in Houston in the early 1930's by Joe Johnson and Willie Davis. In 1942, the group was relocated to Los Angeles. This group, as any other, modeled their music and sound after The Golden Gates.
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Zion Harmonizers

Living legends. This group has sung together for more than 60 years. Benjamin Maxon organized the Zion Harmonizers in 1939. The group was organized in a neighborhood in New Orleans. The Zion Harmonizers have been very successful in praising God and spreading the good news.
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