African and African American Music

/*! elementor – v3.4.7 – 31-10-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Africans and African American Music /*! elementor – v3.4.7 – 31-10-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} Call & Response in Present Day Music  This popular form of engagement is used in performances to connect the singer to the audience, hence […]

The Transformation of African Music to American Societies – Jordan Bishop

/*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Musical Aspect within African and African American Cultures and its Communities! /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} The role of Music within African and African-American societies throughout history has proved to be highly significant […]

Roots of African Music

/*! elementor – v3.5.5 – 03-02-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Roots of African Music /*! elementor – v3.5.5 – 03-02-2022 */ .elementor-widget-divider{–divider-border-style:none;–divider-border-width:1px;–divider-color:#2c2c2c;–divider-icon-size:20px;–divider-element-spacing:10px;–divider-pattern-height:24px;–divider-pattern-size:20px;–divider-pattern-url:none;–divider-pattern-repeat:repeat-x}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__text{font-size:15px;line-height:1;max-width:95%}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__element{margin:0 var(–divider-element-spacing);-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-icon{font-size:var(–divider-icon-size)}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider-separator{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin:0;direction:ltr}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator{-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator:before,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator:before{display:block;content:””;border-bottom:0;-webkit-box-flex:1;-ms-flex-positive:1;flex-grow:1;border-top:var(–divider-border-width) var(–divider-border-style) var(–divider-color)}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-left .elementor-divider .elementor-divider-separator>.elementor-divider__svg:first-of-type{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex-positive:0;flex-grow:0;-ms-flex-negative:100;flex-shrink:100}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-left .elementor-divider-separator:before{content:none}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-left .elementor-divider__element{margin-left:0}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-right .elementor-divider .elementor-divider-separator>.elementor-divider__svg:last-of-type{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex-positive:0;flex-grow:0;-ms-flex-negative:100;flex-shrink:100}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-right .elementor-divider-separator:after{content:none}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-right .elementor-divider__element{margin-right:0}.elementor-widget-divider:not(.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text):not(.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon) .elementor-divider-separator{border-top:var(–divider-border-width) var(–divider-border-style) var(–divider-color)}.elementor-widget-divider–separator-type-pattern{–divider-border-style:none}.elementor-widget-divider–separator-type-pattern.elementor-widget-divider–view-line .elementor-divider-separator,.elementor-widget-divider–separator-type-pattern:not(.elementor-widget-divider–view-line) .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–separator-type-pattern:not(.elementor-widget-divider–view-line) .elementor-divider-separator:before,.elementor-widget-divider–separator-type-pattern:not([class*=elementor-widget-divider–view]) .elementor-divider-separator{width:100%;min-height:var(–divider-pattern-height);-webkit-mask-size:var(–divider-pattern-size) […]

African Music Genre

/*! elementor – v3.5.4 – 23-01-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Instruments in African Music Genre: Folk Music Djembe /*! elementor – v3.5.4 – 23-01-2022 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} The Djembe is significant instrument that is played at weddings, parties, and celebrations. It is also use to heal people when […]

From Africa to Haiti

/*! elementor – v3.5.5 – 03-02-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Slavery Africa has an enormous influence in the Caribbean due to European countries bringing them over to become enslaved. The first 15,000 Africans were brought over to Haiti in 1517 from Western Africa. As a result, Haitian culture is very tied […]

Music’s Impact on the Culture

By Kaitlin Britton Wheeler The Role of Music in African/ African American Communities Music has always been a staple in the Black community. Music has served to soothe us, express our struggles/adversities, and bring us together as one. It makes us dance, laugh, cry, shout, and praise. It is an essential part of any gathering. […]

African Roots- African Dancers & A Drummers Rhythm

/*! elementor – v3.5.4 – 23-01-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} African Dancers and a Drummers Rhythm You can’t have African dance without music. The two are inseparable;  In the dance world we know that in Dance, the dancers and the music directors sometimes work together But in traditional African Dance, the […]

Covers

/*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} African American Covers by Toni Hall /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-divider{–divider-border-style:none;–divider-border-width:1px;–divider-color:#2c2c2c;–divider-icon-size:20px;–divider-element-spacing:10px;–divider-pattern-height:24px;–divider-pattern-size:20px;–divider-pattern-url:none;–divider-pattern-repeat:repeat-x}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__text{font-size:15px;line-height:1;max-width:95%}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__element{margin:0 var(–divider-element-spacing);-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-icon{font-size:var(–divider-icon-size)}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider-separator{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin:0;direction:ltr}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator{-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator:before,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator:before{display:block;content:””;border-bottom:0;-webkit-box-flex:1;-ms-flex-positive:1;flex-grow:1;border-top:var(–divider-border-width) var(–divider-border-style) var(–divider-color)}.elementor-widget-divider–element-align-left .elementor-divider […]

Music in Both Africa and America

/*! elementor – v3.4.8 – 16-11-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} /*! elementor – v3.4.8 – 16-11-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Music in Both African & African American CommunitiesBy: Deja Johnson Music has had an impact on people since the beginning of time. Music is used as a form of […]

The Role of Music in African and African American Communities

/*! elementor – v3.4.4 – 13-09-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Role of Music in African and African American Communities By: Rebekah Glover /*! elementor – v3.4.4 – 13-09-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} To discuss African American music, we must first discuss the influence of African music and its […]

The Appropriation of African Music: History of the Banjo

/*! elementor – v3.5.4 – 23-01-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Cultural Appropriate and The Banjo The banjo is described as being an instrument very similar to the Kora and typically has four strings. Commonly seen a white instrument contributed to “red-necks” or “hillbillies” the banjo has a long and intensive history, […]

The Differences Between Negro and White Spirituals.

/*! elementor – v3.4.4 – 13-09-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} /*! elementor – v3.4.4 – 13-09-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Differences Between Negro and White Spirituals. by Darlene Nawuridam and Wynda Lee Definition of Negro Spirituals Definition of White Spirituals Negro spiritual is a genre of religious folksong […]

Music Covers

/*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Covers of Songs by Black and White Artists Idrianna Bowleg, Wynda Lee, Lundyn Ross, Essence Ward /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} Dolly Parton “I Will Always Love You” Dolly Parton’s “I Will Always Love […]

The Influence of African Folk Music

/*! elementor – v3.5.4 – 23-01-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Roots of African Music & Culture African Folk Music is a large component of the roots of African music and culture. African folk music includes numerous rhythms, styles of delivery, and musical rituals and traditions. It is important to highlight […]

The role of music in African and AA Communities

/*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The role of music in African and AA Communities By: Amaya Thompson /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-image{text-align:center}.elementor-widget-image a{display:inline-block}.elementor-widget-image a img[src$=”.svg”]{width:48px}.elementor-widget-image img{vertical-align:middle;display:inline-block} /*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-widget-divider{–divider-border-style:none;–divider-border-width:1px;–divider-color:#2c2c2c;–divider-icon-size:20px;–divider-element-spacing:10px;–divider-pattern-height:24px;–divider-pattern-size:20px;–divider-pattern-url:none;–divider-pattern-repeat:repeat-x}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__text{font-size:15px;line-height:1;max-width:95%}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider__element{margin:0 var(–divider-element-spacing);-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-icon{font-size:var(–divider-icon-size)}.elementor-widget-divider .elementor-divider-separator{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin:0;direction:ltr}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_text .elementor-divider-separator{-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon .elementor-divider-separator:after,.elementor-widget-divider–view-line_icon […]

Commodification of African American Music

/*! elementor – v3.4.8 – 16-11-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} Commodification of African American Music Darlene Nawuridam Commodification is treating something or someone as a product that can be bought or sold. In African American music specifically, white people have been stealing their art for centuries. African American music evolved from […]

The Legacy of African Music within African American Music

/*! elementor – v3.4.3 – 30-08-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Legacy of African Music within African American Music by Neema Griffin African Music Music in Africa is very colorful and consist of many sounds and instruments coming together. Some of the instruments include the drums, the banjar, marimba, mbira and […]

AFRICAN ROOTS POST

                                                                        Syncopation and Pop Music Syncopation is the place of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn’t normally occur.  Two […]

The Legacy of African Music within African American Music: Group Project

/*! elementor – v3.4.8 – 16-11-2021 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Legacy of African Music Within African American Music By: Noel Harris, Anna Parra Jordan, Amaya Roberts, Neema G., Niara, Trinity Seegars, and Ysabella Lopez AFRICAN INFLUENCE AND HIP HOP It is common knowledge that music is a staple within the […]

African Drums- Folk Music

/*! elementor – v3.9.0 – 06-12-2022 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px} The Beginning In 1619, many Africans were uprooted from their homeland and forced overseas to serve as servants and workers for European masters. They took them away from their family and home, but they couldn’t take away their spirit. Their spirit […]