The Cultural Context
- Swing and Bebop eras were rife with racism and segregation.
- African American jazz artists grew frustrated with swing music as European Americans capitalized on it. They sought to produce their “own” music, a listening art form that was not for dancing.
- Bebop mirrored the culture of the time; like the African American experience at the time, the music: a. was challenging; b. referenced to the blues; explored new possibilities and undiscovered ground; and d. was distinct from America’s mainstream.
- Hard Bop’s African American identity was one of its defining characteristics. Traditional and popular African American music profoundly impacted Hard Bop.
- HardBop was undeniably Afro-centric
- Hard Bop was a way for young African American men to show their displeasure with the social, political, and economic atmosphere of America at the time, i.e. segregation and lack of economic fairness; it reflected and contributed to the 1950s–1960s civil rights struggle
- Hard Bop reflected the fast-paced, driving, complex New York lifestyle.
- Bebop harmonies (chords)are more complex.
- Tempos are often much faster(although the bebop style can be played at any tempo).
- Bebop heads are more intricate and difficult to play than regular melodies.
- Bebop musicians improvise far more complex solos than Those of The Swing Era
- Bebop requires musical virtuosity and artistry to play
- Hard Bop was Afro-centric, blues-based music.
- There were two factions of Hard Bop: Funky Jazz** and Mainstream.
- Mainstream jazz was significantly more complicated (more difficult melodies, improvisations, chord progressions, and forms); it was still about groove and feeling but added Bebop’s intricacies; arranging was often featured as well (worked out introductions, endings, harmonized heads, background lines, etc.)
- Funky Jazz had basic melodies, chord progressions, and forms; it was influenced by blues and gospel music.
A typical bebop combo is composed of two horns(trumpet and saxophone)and rhythm section(piano,bass,and drums).
Although usually a quintet, bebop combos can range in size from three pieces(piano, bass, and drums)to seven pieces (e.g., three horns, guitar, and three rhythm).
Hard bop music and bands borrowed certain aspects from bebop, including the small combo lineup of saxophone, trumpet, piano, and a double bass/drum rhythm section.
Bebop musicians considered themselves artists, not merely entertainers.
The two most important bebop pioneers were alto saxophonist Charlie Parker( his nickname was “Bird”). And trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie
One of the most important Hard Bop groups was the Miles Davis Quintet of the mid 1950s.
In addition to Miles Davis, a few of the most important hard bop pioneers in jazz history include
1. alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley
2. drummer Art Blakey
3. tenor saxophonist John Coltrane
4. tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins
5. pianist Horace Silver
Bebop was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1940–1955. Bebop, in large part, developed through jam sessions. Jam sessions can be held anywhere,e.g.,someone’shouse,a bar,nightclub,etc.;some of the most famous jam sessions in jazz history occurred at nightclub called Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem in the 1940s. Bebop was and still is the music most played at jazz jam sessions because all the musicians need to know are the head
Hard Bop was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1951–1958. Hard Bop was, in part, a reaction to Cool Jazz. Many jazz musicians felt that with Cool Jazz, the music had become too“classical”in nature,that is,too European(not enough “blues”). HardBop was are turn to music that was more Afro-centric,more blues based
Bebop and hard bop both made use of the 32-bar AABA song form in their compositions. Hard bop combos typically consisted of two or three horns in addition to a rhythm section, just like their Bebop ancestor did. This was one among the many similarities between the two styles.
Similar Hard bop songs that have some similar Bebop characteristics
Conclusion (Development after its Popularity)
In the hands of bebop musicians, jazz became more blues-oriented and riff-based as well; and because Parker and Gillespie were able to marry their superior technical ability with their knowledge of advanced music theory, they were able to usher in a new era of musical innovation known as bebop
As in all major northern cities, NewYork experienced an increasing African American population, making it an ideal backdrop and fertile breeding ground for Hard Bop.